JDBC Data Connectivity Definitions
Below are a list of definitions to the most commonly used JDBC terms.
An isolation level represents a particular locking strategy employed in the database system to improve data consistency.
The higher the isolation level number, the more complex the locking strategy behind it. The isolation level provided by the database determines how a transaction handles data consistency.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) defines four isolation levels:
- Read uncommitted (0)
- Read committed (1)
- Repeatable read (2)
- Serializable (3)
J2EE (Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition) technology and its component-based model simplify enterprise development and deployment. The J2EE platform manages the infrastructure and supports the Web services to enable development of secure, robust and interoperable business applications.
The Java API for XML-based RPC (JAX-RPC) enables Java technology developers to develop SOAP-based interoperable and portable web services. JAX-RPC provides the core API for developing and deploying web services on the Java platform. JAX-RPC is a required part of the J2EE 1.4 platform. JAX-RPC web services can also be developed and deployed on J2EE 1.3 containers and Servlet container.
JDOM (Java Document Object Model) is a Java API for processing XML documents. JDOM provides a way to represent XML documents for easy and efficient reading, manipulation, and writing. It has a straightforward API, is lightweight and fast, and is optimized for the Java programmer. It's an alternative to DOM and SAX, although it integrates well with both DOM and SAX.
The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is a standard extension to the Java platform, providing Java technology-enabled applications with a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise. As part of the Java Enterprise API set, JNDI enables seamless connectivity to heterogeneous enterprise naming and directory services. Developers can now build powerful and portable directory-enabled applications using this industry standard.
JTA (Java Transaction API) specifies standard Java interfaces between a transaction manager and the parties involved in a distributed transaction system: the resource manager, the application server, and the transactional applications.
Locking is a database operation that restricts a user from accessing a table or record. Locking is used in situations where more than one user might try to use the same table at the same time. By locking the table or record, the system ensures that only one user at a time can affect the data.
SOAP is a lightweight protocol for exchange of information in a decentralized, distributed environment. It is an XML based protocol that consists of three parts: an envelope that defines a framework for describing what is in a message and how to process it, a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined datatypes, and a convention for representing remote procedure calls and responses.
The Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) project is a sweeping industry initiative. The project creates a platform-independent, open framework for describing services, discovering businesses, and integrating business services using the Internet, as well as an operational registry that is available today.
UDDI is the first truly cross-industry effort driven by all major platform and software providers, as well as marketplace operators and e-business leaders. These technology and business pioneers are acting as the initial catalysts to quickly develop UDDI and related technologies.
The UDDI project takes advantage of WorldWide Web Consortium (W3C) and Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards such as Extensible Markup Language (XML), and HTTP and Domain Name System (DNS) protocols. Additionally, cross platform programming features are addressed by adopting early versions of the proposed Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) known as XML Protocol messaging specifications found at the W3C Web site. The UDDI protocol is the building block that will enable businesses to quickly, easily and dynamically find and transact with one another using their preferred applications.
A Web Service offers a specific business function to applications provided by another application via standard Internet protocols (XML, SOAP, WSDL, UDDI). The existence and location can be dynamically discovered by consuming applications and can usually be dynamically requested without prearranged binding. Web services represent an environment in which developers use components with well defined units of business logic and data access that can be assembled, at run time, to enable a business process.
Web Service Definition Language (WSDL)
WSDL is an XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints operating on messages containing either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. The operations and messages are described abstractly, and then bound to a concrete network protocol and message format to define an endpoint. Related concrete endpoints are combined into abstract endpoints (services).